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Route: A route is the communication path on the internet between your computer and the destination server. Step 1. Step 2. All connections inside Tor network are encrypted green . In this example, the last connection is not-encrypted red . The last connection would be encrypted if Alice were visiting an https website. Step 3. Note : There is a trade-off between anonymity and speed. Tor provides anonymity by bouncing your traffic through volunteer servers in various parts of the world.
It will almost always be slower than a direct connection to the Internet. Tor is the most recommended and rigorously tested tool for keeping your online activities anonymous. But we would like to list some other recommended solutions here:.
Option 1. Go to the Tor download page. Click [Download] to begin the file download. Option 2. If you are in a location where access to the Tor Project website is blocked, you can request a copy of the Tor Browser Bundle installer via email. To do this, send an email to gettor torproject. Figure 2: Emailed request to gettor torproject. You will receive a reply to your email with a link to download the installer via several locations online.
Figure 3: Email response from gettor torproject. Navigate to the folder in which you saved the Tor Browser package a. In this example, we assume you saved file in your Downloads file. Double-click the Tor Browser. It should show up as in a new window Figure 2 , below and under Devices in the left-hand sidebar of a normal Finder window. Drag the TorBrowser. Step 4. Find Tor Browser under Devices in the Finder sidebar. Navigate to the Tor Browser in your Applications folder.
Open System Preferences by clicking on the Apple icon in the top-level menu and scrolling down to select System Preferences. Step 5. Step 6. See Figure 5 below. Mac OS X Gatekeeper restricts which applications you can install on your device. Many developers, especially those working on [Free and Open Source Software FOSS ] projects, choose not to do this on principle and because of the costs involved.
Step 7. Enter the user name and password for an account with administrative privileges, then click [Unlock]. Step 8. It only provides permission for the operating system to open and run Tor Browser now and in the future. Step 8 : Return to you your Applications folder and double-click the Tor Browser to open it. Click [Open]. The first time you launch the Tor Browser , it will ask you how it should connect to the Internet:. Direct Access: Select this option if your access to the Internet is unrestricted and if the use of Tor is not blocked, banned, or monitored where you are located.
Restricted Access: Select this option if your access to the Internet is restricted or if the use of Tor is blocked, banned, or monitored where you are located. After you initially configure and launch the Tor Browser , it will continue to connect to the Tor network with no additional configuration.
But you can change these settings at any time from within the Tor Browser. You may need to change them when you are traveling, or if the situation changes in your country. To do so, see Section 3. If access to the Internet and to the Tor Network are not restricted in your location, perform the following steps to configure the Tor Browser :. To connect directly to the Tor network, click [Connect].
The Tor Browser will now establish a circuit for you within the Tor network. This may take a while the first time you run the Tor Browser. There will be a progress bar as this runs. From here, go to Section 4 to learn how to to use the Tor Browser to access websites safely and anonymously.
If you want to use the Tor Browser from a location where the Tor network is blocked, you will have to use a bridge relay. Bridges are not listed in the public directory of Tor relays, so they are more difficult to block. Some bridges also support pluggable transports , which try to disguise your traffic to and from the Tor network.
This helps prevent online filters from identifying and blocking bridge relays. The default pluggable transport, called obfs4 , also makes it slightly more difficult for others to figure out that you are connecting to the Tor network. In general, though, Tor is not designed to hide the fact that you are using Tor.
You can learn more about bridges on the Tor project website. There are two ways to use bridges. You can enable the provided bridges or you can request custom bridges. You can use provided bridges to connect to the Tor network by performing the following steps:. Step 2: If you have restricted access, click [Configure].
Note : If you have already configured the Tor Browser, you can activate the screen below by following the steps in Section 3. Step 3: Select Yes , then click [Continue]. Select Connect with provided bridges and click [Continue]. The Tor Browser will now ask if you need to use a local proxy to access the Internet. The steps below assume that you do not. Tip : If you do , you can check your regular browser settings and copy over your proxy configuration. In other browsers you may find them under Internet Options.
You can also use the Help feature within your browser for further assistance. Select No , then click [Connect] to launch the Tor Browser. The onion data structure protects messages with multiple layers of encryption to prevent the operators of the relays from reading the contents of the message.
The Tor routing process is illustrated in Figure 2. When you send an email, for example, the client application on your computer selects random relays in the network to create an untraceable path to the recipient. New paths are created every time you create a message. Since each relay transporting your message is aware of only two other nodes, your identity is protected. Figure 2.
Tor protects against traffic analysis by creating a random path from your computer to the recipient. As you might imagine, all of this relaying means that Tor can be slow — sometimes painfully slow. Loading a website can take two to four times longer than it would without Tor.
Most people just want to use Tor to browse the web anonymously, without fear of being monitored or tracked. For this reason, the Tor project has created a self-contained package called the Tor Browser for Mac , which includes everything you need to browse the internet safely on your Mac. There are also browsers for computers running Windows and Linux. This is the best option for home users who want to get started with Tor fast. And because the browser can be copied to a USB drive, you can use it at school or work to protect online activities there, too.
Download and install the Tor Browser for Mac on your computer. Open the Tor Browser application and click the Connect button to connect to the Tor network, as shown below. To verify that Tor is working, you can click the lock icon in the address bar. The relays that Tor is using to connect you to the website are displayed in the menu, as shown below.